Thursday, 16 May 2013

Contoh Makalah Drama "audience"



INDA RAHAYU                                 (A1D4 09 028)
MUH. OKTARA WANDY S              (A1D4 09 041)    
SALMA ABDUHU                                       (A1D4 08 094)
WA ODE SULASMIN                        (A1D4 09 071)
WA ODE SITI NURINDAH               (A1D4 09 078)

Drama is a form of literature. In the drama, the writer wanted to convey a message through acting and dialogue. Usually drama show something common in our daily lives, so that the audience are invited to participate as if watching and feel the life and events in the community. There are different types of drama: Comedy, tragedy, farce, mellow drama and musical.
Beside that we must know the essential element of drama, there are:
      1.      Character
      2.      Plot
      3.      Theme
     4.      Dialogue
     5.      Convention
     6.      Genre
     7.      Audience
     8.      Stagecraft
     9.      Design
    10.   Conversion
In this matter we can tell more about one of the essential element of drama, that is audience.  
Ø  Purpose
Our purpose in discussing this matter is to discuss more about one of the elements of the drama that is the audiences.

Ø  Objective of this write
-          To explain the definition of audience
-          To explain history of audience
-          To explain the types of audience
-          To explain audience aspect

Audience is the assembled spectators or listener at a public event such us a play, film, concert, or meeting, the people who watch or listen to a television or radio, readership of a newspaper, magazine, or book and the people giving attention to something.

Because the development of the concept of an audience and the evolution of different forms of media are intertwined, their growth is connected throughout history. According to Tony Bennett, “the modern concept of the audience as the receivers of messages from a centralized source of transmission, then, was not present at the birth of the modern media but has emerged in tandem with their development and, in part, as a product of their own practices.”
The examination of audiences is a new field. Researchers paid relatively little attention to audiences before the invention of television and radio in the early twentieth-century. Robert Snyder described how technological advances radically re-formed the way audiences were conceived.
Through the middle of the nineteenth century, the audience for popular entertainment was constituted in highly public places. In the twentieth century, however, popular culture came to be defined by records, film, radio, and television– the products of a centralized entertainment industry that disseminates what it produces to a nationwide, and increasingly international, audience.
New, modern methods for communicating, entertaining, and conveying information produced different variations of the public.
With the increasing popularity of film in the early twentieth century and the rapid diffusion of radio in the 1920s, and 1930s, the composition of the public shifted dramatically. As the new media captured the public imagination, community-based group faded further. Advertisers and politicians started to exploit new communication technologies to influence buying and voting decisions while broadcasters developed new means to study their audiences.
Recently, however, scholars from various fields (media studies, cultural studies, anthropology, psychology, consumer research, and the newest addition, audience studies) have begun to investigate audiences.
Whilst the second half of the twentieth century saw a significant growth in audience studies, with the actual concept of ‘the audience’ moving through the arc of passive sap to interactive player, it was arguably the 1990s with saw the most significant shift in thinking about the audience with the widespread incursion of the internet into everyday lives and culture and the explosion in talk and reality TV shows.
Knowledge about audiences has become an increasingly important commodity for media producers. Broadcasters and advertisers spend a significant amount of time and money in an attempt to learn about those who watch/read/listen to different kinds of media. In their efforts to market products and increase the popularity of their programming (be it audio, visual, or textual), researchers work to meet the high demand for information about audience preferences and tastes.
Audience measurement is a type of audience research that documents the size and composition of media audiences. It allows patterns of audience activity to be tracked over time and it generates the type of data that permits comparison of audience behavior from one medium to another. An industry-based research service, audience measurement generates information that is essential to the operation of media industries. Information about audience size and composition is, after all, the basis on which programming and pricing decisions are made.
This connection between audience research and marketing has greatly influenced how media producers understand the public and design their products. Often, the success or failure of a media product (a television show, movie, radio program, and website) is determined by audience response, and so it follows that examinations of the public as media consumers has a direct impact on the kind of media that are developed. As Richard Peterson writes, “media history offers many illustrations of how audiences and markets are only tenuously related to each other and how the measurement concepts and methods of the time determine that relationship”. Often, those producing media are advised to “know your audience” and tailor their products for a specific group, a specific taste, specific values, etc. “An occasional premise of communicator studies has been that professional mass communicators hold or at least, ought to hold some image of their audience”. As previously stated, these kinds of statements become problematic in that the definition of an audience is unclear. With no concrete notion of exactly what an audience is (or, for that matter, is not), it continues to be challenging to clarify these ideas. As James Anderson reminds us, “theories of the audience should take account of the fact that ‘it’ is always a construction."
1. Particular (real) Audiences
In rhetoric, particular audiences depend on circumstance and situation, and are characterized by the individuals that make up the audience. Particular audiences are subject to persuasion and engage with the ideas of the speaker. Ranging in size and composition, particular audiences can come together to form a "composite" audience of multiple particular groups.
2. Immediate Audiences
An immediate audience is a type of particular audience that is composed of individuals who are face-to-face subjects with a speaker and a speaker’s rhetorical text or speech. This type of audience directly listens to, engages with, and consumes the rhetorical text in an unmediated fashion. In measuring immediate audience reception and feedback, (audience measurement), one can depend on personal interviews, applause, and verbal comments made during and after a rhetorical speech.
3. Mediated audiences
In contrast to immediate audiences, mediated audiences are composed of individuals who consume rhetorical texts in a manner that is different from the time or place in which the speaker presents a text. Audiences who consume texts or speeches through television, radio, and Internet are considered mediated audiences because those mediums separate the rhetoric and the audience. Understanding the size and composition of mediated audiences can be difficult because mediums such as television, radio, and Internet can displace the audience from the time and circumstance of a rhetorical text or speech. In measuring mediated audience reception and feedback (a practice called audience measurement), one can depend on opinion polls and ratings, as well as comments and forums that may be featured on a website.
4. Theoretical (imagined) audiences
Theoretical audiences are audiences that are imagined for the purpose of helping the speaker compose, or a critic to understand, a rhetorical text or speech.
5. Self as audience (self-deliberation)
When rhetoric deeply considers, questions, and deliberates over the content of the ideas they are conveying, it can be said that these individuals are addressing the audience of self, or self-deliberating. Scholars Chaim Perelman and L. Olbrechts Tyteca, in their book The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, argue that the rhetoric "is in a better position than anyone else to test the value of his own arguments." The audience of self, while not serving as the ends to all rhetorical purpose or circumstance, nevertheless acts as a type of audience that not only operates as a function of self-help, but as instrument used to discover the available means of persuasion.
6. Universal audience
The universal audience is an imagined audience that serves as an ethical and argumentative test for the rhetoric. It requires the speaker to imagine a composite audience that contains individuals from diverse backgrounds and to discern whether or not the content of the rhetorical text or speech would appeal to individuals within that audience. Scholars Perelman and Olbrechts Tyteca ascertain that the content addressed to a universal audience "must convince the reader that the reasons adduced are of a compelling character that they are self-evident, and possess an absolute and timeless validity". The concept of the universal audience has received criticism for being idealistic because it can be considered as an impediment in achieving persuasive effect with particular audiences. Yet, it still may be useful as an ethical guide for a speaker and a critical tool for a reader or audience.
7. Ideal audience
An ideal audience is a rector’s imagined, intended audience. In creating a rhetorical text, rhetoric imagines a target audience, a group of individuals that will be addressed, persuaded, or affected by the speech or rhetorical text. This type of audience is not necessarily imagined as the most receptive audience, but as the future particular audience that the rhetoric will engage with. Imagining such an audience allows rhetoric to formulate appeals that will grant success in engaging with the future particular audience. In considering an ideal audience, rhetoric can imagine future conditions of mediation, size, demographics, and shared beliefs among the audience to be persuaded.
8. Implied audience
An implied audience is an imaginary audience determined by an auditor or reader as the text's constructed audience. The implied audience is not the actual audience, but the one that can be inferred by reading or analyzing the text. Communications scholar Edwin Black, in his essay, The Second Person, presents the theoretical concept of the implied audience using the idea of two personae. The first persona is the implied rhetoric (the idea of the speaker formed by the audience) and the second persona is the implied audience (the idea of the audience formed by and utilized for persuasion in the speech situation). A critic could also determine what the text wants that audience to become or do after the rhetorical situation, is a group of people who enjoy listening to various music or speeches. The person who empower them the most, is it reformed yes or no?

The ultimate goal of staging is the audience. Audience response going back and forth between the audience and watched. Some directors are less concerned about the audience and assume that the audience is a group of consumers who will be able to take for granted what is presented. Thus, if there is a failure in the performance, the audience is often considered not understand or less educated to understand the idea of a staging.

Because the audience is one element in the play, the director, and the team needs to consider staging crowd trouble.

1.      Reasons people watch
a.   Basic human desire.
·         Recognition is the audience can recognize the existence of life seen in the play. Life is manifested through the actor who played.
·         Adventure is human life is not complete without having a new experience that matters. Theatre is a world of action adventure.
·         Safety, the safest way is to do in life as a spectator. The audience   witnessed the events (also sad) in the stage, but he does not experience it.
b.     similarity driving
            Most of the emotions that dominate the story is based on the similarity of emotions the audience and actors. Similarity driving them together, the audience knew back several aspects of himself on stage and felt able to take part in the scenes in the play.
c.     Another reason: the variation of life, relaxation, gives it a rest for the mind, provide entertainment. In addition, the theater provides a unique artistic and emotional beauty. Reasons people to watch should be considered by the director and team performances so the audience does not get bored and leave before staging is complete.
2.      Audience Response
a.     artistic Detachment
        Response is an ideal, because the audience is able to maintain the artistic objectivity. This is achieved by determining the aesthetic work of art in mind. These responses resulted in what is called the aesthetic experience.
b.     participation illusion.
Due to the similarity of the driving reasons, spectators often have the illusion of participation with fantasy stories. This is indicated by the imitative motor (body movement in accordance with the motion in the play) and the identification of emotion (the audience sees the character sees himself as figures).
         Because the ideal response to the audience is artistic detachment, there are some things that need to be considered by the directors, namely:
·            Creating arrangement / structuring the right upper auditorium (the audience) and the stage area.
·            The artistic boundaries proscenium.
·            Stage area light and the dark auditorium.



The audience is most important, where a group of individuals gathered together at a certain time and place for no purpose other than to see the performance (though some may be doing other things: placing bets, writing reviews, wasting time, etc.), that is aware of itself as a group.